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Legal & Licensing

    Results: 165

  • Adoption Legal Services (2)
    FT-3000.0300

    Adoption Legal Services

    FT-3000.0300

    Programs that provide assistance for people who want to independently adopt a child, legally relinquish a child for adoption or initiate or respond to litigation which involves the placement or removal of a child.
  • Adult Day Program Complaints (3)
    DD-1500.0070

    Adult Day Program Complaints

    DD-1500.0070

    Programs that accept and, where possible, attempt to resolve complaints regarding individuals and organizations that provide adult day care or adult day health care services. Included are complaints concerning licensing, cleanliness and safety of the homes or facilities, treatment of program participants, quality of care, excessive fees, unethical or improper conduct of personnel or other inappropriate business practices of adult day program providers.
  • Adult Parole (4)
    FF-0500.6500-050

    Adult Parole

    FF-0500.6500-050

    Programs that provide for the formal supervision of adults who have been released from jail, prison or other confinement after serving part of the term for which they were sentenced based on the judgment that there is a reasonable probability that they will live and remain at liberty without violating the law. Adults who are on parole remain in the legal custody of the state and may be reincarcerated if they violate the terms of their parole order.
  • Adult Probation (5)
    FF-0500.6550-050

    Adult Probation

    FF-0500.6550-050

    Programs that provide formal supervision and support for adults who have been convicted of an offense and released into the community under the supervision of a probation officer, usually in lieu of incarceration. The individual must agree to standards of conduct specified by the court for a set amount of time, usually for one year. Violations of the agreement subject the individual to revocation of his or her liberty.
  • Adult Protective Intervention/Investigation (2)
    PH-6500.0500-050

    Adult Protective Intervention/Investigation

    PH-6500.0500-050

    Programs that investigate and intervene on behalf of adults who are unable to act on their own behalf, manage their own affairs, or who are in immediate danger due to physical or emotional abuse, unsafe or hazardous living conditions, exploitation, neglect or abandonment. Services may include removal of the individual to safer surroundings, authorization for medical treatment and other available services necessary to remove the conditions which have created a threat to life. Included are programs that receive reports of and investigate elder abuse involving noninstitutionalized adults.
  • Adult Residential Facility Complaints (4)
    DD-1500.0080

    Adult Residential Facility Complaints

    DD-1500.0080

    Programs, usually offered by licensing authorities, that accept and, where possible, attempt to resolve complaints regarding the licensing, cleanliness and safety of facilities, treatment of residents, quality of care, excessive fees, unethical or improper conduct of personnel or other inappropriate business practices of group residences for adults with disabilities, assisted living facilities, and senior residential care homes.
  • Adult Residential Facility Licensing (1)
    DF-4500.2000-100

    Adult Residential Facility Licensing

    DF-4500.2000-100

    Programs that establish and enforce health, safety and program standards for group residences for older adults and adults with disabilities including adult foster homes, group homes, adult residential care homes, assisted living facilities, continuing care retirement communities, semi-independent living residences for adults with disabilities and other similar facilities where licensing requirements apply; review applications for licenses; issue or deny licenses; inspect facilities for compliance with requirements; and revoke licenses or bring disciplinary action for noncompliance.
  • Advocacy (8)
    FP-0500

    Advocacy

    FP-0500

    Programs that intercede on behalf of individuals and/or groups to ensure that they receive the benefits and services for which they are eligible and that organizations within the established service delivery system meet the collective needs of the community; that attempt to marshal public support for a particular issue or cause; or that seek to influence legislation, local ordinances or administrative rulings in order to benefit specific interest groups or achieve specific social, political or environmental goals.
  • Air Pollution Control (2)
    JD-6500.0500

    Air Pollution Control

    JD-6500.0500

    Programs that establish minimum standards for air quality, offer incentives which help to advance clean air goals, develop and enforce regulations that are designed to reduce and control gaseous and particulate contaminants in the air, monitor air pollution levels, investigate complaints regarding violations and, when warranted, initiate litigation against individuals and organizations who have failed to comply with air pollution control regulations.
  • Alternative Sentencing/Supervision (4)
    FF-0500

    Alternative Sentencing/Supervision

    FF-0500

    Programs that provide formal supervision of offenders released conditionally on probation or parole or confined to their homes or other venues in the community; that offer alternatives to involvement in the juvenile justice system for youth involved in minor misdemeanors; or that provide the option of participating in counseling, educational or work programs as an alternative to incarceration in a correctional facility, payment of a fine or other sanctions. Defendants convicted of less serious crimes may be sentenced to simple probation, i.e., supervision in the community under the direction of a probation officer. For other crimes, a judge may choose from three intermediate sanctions: community confinement, intermittent confinement, and home detention. For more serious crimes, judges may impose a split sentence, in which the defendant spends a short time in prison and the remainder of the sentence in one of the intermediate sanctions. Community confinement means residence in a treatment center outside the prison walls, such as a halfway house or drug rehabilitation center. Community confinement may be imposed instead of prison time, or as a means of easing transition back into the community after time spent in prison. Intermittent confinement means the defendant is free to go to work or live at home for part of the week, but must spend time in jail on weekends. Home confinement is a judicially managed system of punishment and control for offenders deemed safe enough to live in their own homes, but requiring a higher degree of supervision.
  • Animal Licenses (10)
    PD-0700.0600

    Animal Licenses

    PD-0700.0600

    Programs that issue licenses for domestic animals who are subject to regulation. Annual licensing is required for dogs of a specified age (rabies certificates are usually required) and, frequently, for equines (horses, mules, ponies, donkeys, burros) who reside in some areas. Optional identification tags are available for cats and are usually valid for the lifetime of the animal. Licensing fees are usually reduced for neutered dogs or dogs who are certified by a veterinarian as being unable to reproduce; dog guides may receive permanent licenses for a very nominal fee. In many jurisdictions, special licenses may be required for people keeping exotic pets (e.g. tigers, wolves) that may require special conditions and/or pose a possible risk to the public if not properly secured.
  • Benefits Assistance (14)
    FT-1000

    Benefits Assistance

    FT-1000

    Programs that provide assistance for people who are having difficulty understanding and/or obtaining grants, payments, services or other benefits to which they are entitled by law. The programs may help people understand the eligibility criteria for benefits, the benefits provided by the program, the payment process and the rights of beneficiaries; provide consultation and advice; help them complete benefits application forms; negotiate on their behalf with benefits administration staff; and/or represent them in administrative processes or judicial litigation. Included are benefits counseling organizations that offer a range of advocacy services and legal aid programs that offer more formalized legal assistance.
  • Better Business Bureaus (1)
    DD-2100.1000

    Better Business Bureaus

    DD-2100.1000

    Nonprofit organizations sponsored by private, local businesses which provide general information about products or services, reliability reports, background information regarding local businesses and records of the companies' complaint handling performances. Most Better Business Bureaus accept complaints against businesses and help to resolve disputes through mediation or binding arbitration utilizing volunteer arbitration panels.
  • Birth Certificates (7)
    DF-7000.1200

    Birth Certificates

    DF-7000.1200

    Programs that maintain and, where appropriate, provide copies of birth certificates, i.e., documents which certify the date and place of a person's birth as well as his/her parentage. Available in most jurisdictions are authorized copies which are required to obtain a driver’s license, passport, Social Security card and other services related to an individual’s identity; and informational copies which cannot be used to establish a person’s identity. Only individuals designated by law have access to authorized copies of a person's birth certificate.
  • Business Associations (2)
    TN-1000

    Business Associations

    TN-1000

    Organizations whose members are business people, either operating their own companies or employed in organizations, who have affiliated for the purpose of promoting the general commercial interests of the community or the interests of their own trade.
  • Chambers of Commerce (10)
    TN-1000.1500

    Chambers of Commerce

    TN-1000.1500

    Local associations of business people, either operating their own companies or employed in organizations, who have organized to promote the welfare of their community (city, county, town, township or other locale), especially its commercial interests. Chambers of commerce direct their efforts to promoting the common economic interests of all the commercial enterprises within a locality rather than focusing on a particular industry, usually have an elected board of directors, and do their work through committees. They encourage the growth of new businesses, provide assistance to new firms seeking to locate in the community, advocate for actions that promote tourism and benefit the regional economy and serve as a voice for the business community at local and state levels. Member benefits may include publicity and advertising opportunities in vehicles such as member directories, visitor's guides and a community calendar; ribbon cutting ceremonies and grand openings for new establishments; business expos; job fairs; small business counseling; business seminars; member referrals; member-to-member discounts; health and other insurance; and a variety of social activities.
  • Child Abuse Reporting/Emergency Response (6)
    PH-6500.1500-140

    Child Abuse Reporting/Emergency Response

    PH-6500.1500-140

    Programs that accept and respond to reports of child abuse or neglect. Services include assessment of the initial referral, assignment of an appropriate response time, consultation with the family to determine the nature of the problem and do initial case planning, and emergency placement services if the child is removed from the family by the police.
  • Child Care Complaints (1)
    DD-1500.1500

    Child Care Complaints

    DD-1500.1500

    Programs that accept and, where possible, attempt to resolve complaints regarding individuals and organizations that provide child care services. Included are complaints concerning licensing, cleanliness and safety of homes or facilities, treatment of children, quality of care, excessive fees, unethical or improper conduct of personnel or other inappropriate business practices of child care providers.
  • Child Care Provider Licensing (1)
    DF-4500.2000-130

    Child Care Provider Licensing

    DF-4500.2000-130

    Programs that establish and enforce health, safety and program standards for child care facilities including child care centers and family child care homes, review applications for licenses, issue or deny licenses, inspect facilities for compliance with requirements and revoke licenses or bring disciplinary action for noncompliance.
  • Child Care Provider Training (4)
    JR-8200.1500-150

    Child Care Provider Training

    JR-8200.1500-150

    Programs that provide pre-service or in-service training for individuals entering or currently involved in the delivery of child care services in any of a variety of child care settings. The training may focus on the elements of a safe and healthy environment, childhood development, behavior management, inclusion of children with special needs and developmentally appropriate practices.
  • Child Guardianship Assistance (5)
    FT-6900.2500-150

    Child Guardianship Assistance

    FT-6900.2500-150

    Programs that provide assistance for people who are in favor of or want to oppose the appointment of a guardian to care for and/or manage the affairs of a child or adolescent during minority. The court may appoint a guardian of the person in situations where there is no parent to meet the child's needs due to death, incapacity, abandonment, military service or other reasons; and/or a guardian of the child's estate. In the latter situation, the guardian is given responsibility for managing the child's funds, collecting and making an inventory of the child's assets, keeping accurate financial records, and regularly filing financial accountings with the court.
  • Child Sexual Exploitation Reporting (2)
    FN-1700.1300

    Child Sexual Exploitation Reporting

    FN-1700.1300

    Programs that provide a hotline or other mechanisms that the public can use to report instances in which an individual or group of individuals is involved in the possession, manufacture and/or distribution of child pornography; online enticement of children for sexual acts; child prostitution; child sex tourism; non-familial child sexual molestation; sending unsolicited obscene material to a child or other acts that constitute child sexual exploitation.
  • Children's Protective Services (7)
    PH-6500.1500

    Children's Protective Services

    PH-6500.1500

    Programs that investigate reports of child abuse, neglect or abandonment; document substantiated cases; provide for the temporary placement of children who, for their own protection, have been removed from the custody of the adults who are responsible for their care; work with families who are experiencing a problem with child abuse with the objective of facilitating continued family unification or reunification; and provide ongoing supportive services for children in permanent placement.
  • Citizenship and Immigration Services Offices (1)
    FT-3500.1500

    Citizenship and Immigration Services Offices

    FT-3500.1500

    Government offices that provide immigration and naturalization services and benefits, and enforce immigration laws. These offices receive and adjudicate petitions for change of status to or extension of nonimmigrant visa categories, family and employment based petitions leading to immigrant visas, petitions for adjustment of status to lawful permanent residence and petitions for naturalization. They also investigate violations of immigration laws, pursue the removal of aliens thought to have violated those laws, if warranted, provide for the detention of aliens, and manage the removal of persons found to have committed removable offenses as defined by immigration law. The Bureau of Citizenship and Immigration Services (CIS) is part of the Department of Homeland Security (DHS).
  • Citizenship Assistance Centers (6)
    FT-3600.6000-150

    Citizenship Assistance Centers

    FT-3600.6000-150

    Community-based programs that establish one-stop centers which provide a variety of services to help people who have lived in the United States the requisite period of time apply to become U.S. citizens. Included may be photographs required for citizenship applications, copies of the Application for Naturalization form (Form N-400), assistance in completing the form, copies of questions typically asked by the Bureau of Citizenship and Immigration Services (CIS) in citizenship interviews and an opportunity to practice for the interview.
  • Citizenship Test Preparation (13)
    HL-8500.1400

    Citizenship Test Preparation

    HL-8500.1400

    Programs, which may be available via the Internet, that help people who have lived in the U.S. the requisite period of time prepare for the examination they must pass to become citizens. Practice questions may be available.
  • Civil State Trial Courts (2)
    FC-8200.1500

    Civil State Trial Courts

    FC-8200.1500

    State trial courts of general jurisdiction that handle civil cases which involve personal injury, property damage or liability, medical or dental malpractice, real estate actions, equity suits such as injunction proceedings, specific performance contract disputes, administration of trusts and foreclosure on mortgages; and, in jurisdictions where there are no specialized courts, adoptions, probate, family law and psychiatric cases. In some states, a distinction is made between municipal civil courts which hear cases involving monetary claims lower than an established amount and superior civil courts which hear all other civil cases. The type of cases handled by civil trial courts varies by state.
  • Community Action/Social Advocacy Groups (4)
    TD-1600

    Community Action/Social Advocacy Groups

    TD-1600

    Organizations whose members have joined together on a voluntary basis to promote a particular cause or work for the realization of a specific social or political goal.
  • Community Crime Prevention Programs (1)
    FN-1500.1550

    Community Crime Prevention Programs

    FN-1500.1550

    Programs that involve the business, religious or residential community in planning, funding or implementing a crime prevention program, often in cooperation with the local criminal justice system.
  • Confidential Address Protection Programs (7)
    FN-1900.0400

    Confidential Address Protection Programs

    FN-1900.0400

    Programs that provide a confidential mail-forwarding service for abused women and men, sexual assault survivors and stalking victims who have relocated to help them safeguard information about their new address. The program provides a substitute mailing address that can be used when home, work or school addresses are required, and forwards all first class mail sent to the substitute address to the individual's new residence. To further secure a victim's privacy and safety, confidential address protection programs allow participants to file voter registration, marriage licenses, birth certificates and other vital records as confidential records.
  • Conservatorship Assistance (2)
    FT-6900.1500

    Conservatorship Assistance

    FT-6900.1500

    Programs that provide assistance for people who are in favor of or want to oppose the appointment of a conservator to protect adults from physical danger and improper treatment and/or to protect their estate from exploitation or waste when they are incapable of managing their own affairs or are competent but infirm. Conservatorships differ widely among jurisdictions. In some states, conservatorships are voluntary arrangements in which a physically infirm but competent individual petitions the court to appoint the conservator of choice to manage whatever powers and property the conservatee chooses to include in the arrangement. In these jurisdictions, guardianships apply to adults who are found to be incompetent. In other states, conservatorships apply only to an individual's property while guardianships address responsibility for the person. States having no conservatorship arrangements generally have guardianship provisions which address the needs of adults who have been found by the courts to be incapable of managing their own affairs.
  • Constitutional/Civil Rights Groups (5)
    TD-1600.3100-160

    Constitutional/Civil Rights Groups

    TD-1600.3100-160

    Organizations that work to protect the rights of people guaranteed by the U.S. Constitution, and which promote the passage and enforcement of laws and other social measures that extend individual rights or more effectively protect them. These rights include constitutional guarantees, such as the right to bear arms, freedom of speech and freedom of the press, as well as civil rights which protect all citizens from discrimination based on race, color, religion, gender or national origin in the areas of voting, education, employment and housing; in the use of facilities and public accommodations; and in the administration of federally assisted or other public programs.
  • Consumer Complaints (4)
    DD-1500

    Consumer Complaints

    DD-1500

    Programs that provide mechanisms through which consumers can register complaints regarding specific problems they are having with consumer goods and services, and obtain assistance in achieving a satisfactory resolution.
  • Consumer Fraud Reporting (4)
    FN-1700.1470

    Consumer Fraud Reporting

    FN-1700.1470

    Programs that provide a hotline or other mechanisms that consumers can use to report the activities of telephone and Internet scammers and other con artists who attempt to persuade older adults, individuals who live alone, disaster victims and other vulnerable people to part with their savings. Common scams include fraudulent prize offers, "free" travel packages that have hidden costs or which never materialize, "get rich quick" investments that turn out to be worthless, tax debt/refund scams, phony charities with names that are similar to well-known organizations and schemes involving promises to recover an individual's money following their victimization by another scam. Reports may be filed by consumer fraud victims or by people who have information about individuals they know to be perpetrating these types of scams.
  • County Clerk of the Courts Offices (6)
    TD-6600.4500-160

    County Clerk of the Courts Offices

    TD-6600.4500-160

    The offices of individuals appointed by judges to assist in managing the flow of cases through the court; maintain court files, records and exhibits; handle financial matters; and provide other administrative support.
  • County Correctional Facilities (11)
    FF-1500.1550

    County Correctional Facilities

    FF-1500.1550

    County operated facilities that are used for the secure detention of people who have been charged with violating a state law or a municipal or local ordinance, up to and during the course of their trial, and which provide for the confinement, treatment, employment, training and discipline of people who have been convicted of a crime and sentenced by the courts to serve up to one year of imprisonment. Included are work camps and other county-operated facilities that are alternatives to traditional incarceration.
  • County Government Information Lines (10)
    TJ-3200.2500-160

    County Government Information Lines

    TJ-3200.2500-160

    Programs that provide telephone information about county government offices and services, and which assist callers to locate the office they need. Also included are organizations that provide county government information via an Internet website.
  • Court Community Service Referral Programs (1)
    FF-0500.1300-150

    Court Community Service Referral Programs

    FF-0500.1300-150

    Programs that oversee the placement in selected community agencies of individuals who have been convicted of an offense and sentenced by the courts to perform unpaid work in the community in lieu of or in addition to incarceration, fines, restitution or other sanctions. Most programs report back to the court when the court-referred volunteers have completed their volunteer assignments.
  • Court Ordered Parenting Programs (11)
    PH-6100.1600

    Court Ordered Parenting Programs

    PH-6100.1600

    Programs approved by the court that provide classes which utilize a specialized curriculum that assists families with family preservation and unification. The programs target families in which children are deemed at risk for abuse and neglect and enable parents to fulfill the requirements of court-ordered family preservation contracts.
  • Crime Prevention (44)
    FN-1500

    Crime Prevention

    FN-1500

    Programs that help individuals and the general public protect themselves against crime or prevent its occurrence.
  • Crime Prevention Volunteer Opportunities (3)
    PX-1850.1600

    Crime Prevention Volunteer Opportunities

    PX-1850.1600

    Organizations that are actively seeking individuals who are willing to work on a voluntary basis without remuneration on projects whose objective is to reduce crime and the fear of crime, either generally or among representatives of a specific population, e.g., older adults.
  • Crime Reporting (4)
    FN-1700

    Crime Reporting

    FN-1700

    Programs that encourage the public to provide information, often anonymously, which might lead to the arrest, prosecution and conviction of people who have committed crimes. Included are special "tip" lines and crime reporting hotlines that have been established by law enforcement organizations, employers or community resources, but not law enforcement offices which take crime reports as a part of their everyday activities unless they have a special number for a particular type of report.
  • Crime Scene and Trauma Cleanup Services (2)
    JP-6500.1500-100

    Crime Scene and Trauma Cleanup Services

    JP-6500.1500-100

    Programs that clean and restore property that has been the scene of a violent crime, accident or unattended death, or used as a methamphetamine lab. Crime scene and trauma cleaning services have specialized training and equipment to deal with homes and businesses that have been contaminated by blood, body fluids and other biohazards, fingerprint powder and other evidence-gathering chemicals, tear gas and pepper spray residues, fire extinguisher residue and other conditions that render a space unusable.
  • Crime Victim Accompaniment Services (17)
    FN-1900.0500

    Crime Victim Accompaniment Services

    FN-1900.0500

    Programs that provide support for battered women, sexual assault survivors and other victims of crimes by having a staff member go with them when they require a medical examination to gather evidence or need to visit a police station to file a complaint or appear in court to give evidence.
  • Crime Victim Compensation (8)
    FN-1900.1500

    Crime Victim Compensation

    FN-1900.1500

    Programs that provide financial compensation for people who have suffered monetary losses as a direct result of some form of violent crime. Compensation is generally available to meet unreimbursed medical and hospital expenses, loss of wages or support, expenses encumbered by participation in job-related rehabilitation or retraining programs, and legal fees; or may be unrestricted in terms of purpose. Also included are programs that help people apply for these services.
  • Crime Victim Notification Services (6)
    FN-1900.1600

    Crime Victim Notification Services

    FN-1900.1600

    Programs notify victims of crimes, upon their request, of any change in the status of offenders including their address when first released, court rulings regarding sentence length, notice of parole or clemency-related events and proceedings (e.g., parole eligibility date, parole suitability hearing dates and times, parole decisions and conditions, parole release dates, parole violation hearings and parole revocation hearings), escape from institutional custody and apprehension, assignment to work release, release from prison, or death.
  • Crime Victim Support (11)
    FN-1900

    Crime Victim Support

    FN-1900

    Programs whose objective is to help victims of crimes and their families recover from the trauma of their experience, get medical assistance when required, make their way through the legal system, have an opportunity to provide input to parole or clemency hearings, take appropriate steps, where relevant, to avoid becoming re-victimized, access the benefits to which they are entitled and rebuild their lives.
  • Crime Victim/Witness Counseling (4)
    RP-1400.8000-160

    Crime Victim/Witness Counseling

    RP-1400.8000-160

    Programs that provide emotional support, information and guidance in a variety of settings for individuals and families who are attempting to deal with their fears, their feelings of being violated and other negative aftereffects of being burglarized, robbed, assaulted or otherwise victimized. Also included are programs that provide counseling for people who have been traumatized by witnessing an act of violence.
  • Crime Witness Support (6)
    FN-2100

    Crime Witness Support

    FN-2100

    Programs that provide a variety of supportive services for people who have witnessed a crime which may include crisis counseling, shelter away from their homes, escort services, transportation, child care, financial assistance, protective services, information about the mechanics of court proceedings and/or advice and guidance concerning court appearances. Some programs focus specifically on child witnesses and help to prepare them for what they will experience in the courtroom.
  • Criminal Law (1)
    FT-1500

    Criminal Law

    FT-1500

    Programs that provide legal assistance (generally advice and representation in criminal investigations, plea negotiations, trials and appeals) for people who have been charged with an offense made criminal by federal or state laws or municipal or local ordinances and punishable by death, imprisonment, fines, restitution or other specified sanctions; individuals released on probation as an alternative to incarceration; or people who have been released on parole following a period of incarceration and remain in the legal custody of the correctional system which has the authority to suspend and revoke the parole of any parolee for violations of the law or parole rules.
  • Criminal State Trial Courts (4)
    FC-8200.1550

    Criminal State Trial Courts

    FC-8200.1550

    State trial courts that handle infractions punishable by a fine; misdemeanor cases such as petty theft, prostitution, intoxication and vandalism punishable by a fine with a maximum level (usually $1000) and maximum amount of time in county jail (usually a year or less); and felony cases such as murder, possession of dangerous drugs for sale, robbery and rape that are punishable by a state prison term or, in states where capital punishment is legal, by death. In some states a distinction is made between municipal criminal courts which handle infractions, misdemeanors and preliminary hearings for felony cases; and superior criminal courts which try felony cases and misdemeanor cases for which other provisions have not been made. The type of cases handled by criminal trial courts varies by state.
  • Death Certificates (7)
    DF-7000.1700-300

    Death Certificates

    DF-7000.1700-300

    Programs that issue, maintain and, where appropriate, provide access to or copies of the official documents that certify that an individual has died. Death certificates specify the cause of death and are generally signed by an attending or examining physician. Available in most jurisdictions are authorized copies which may be required to obtain death benefits, claim insurance proceeds, notify Social Security and access other services related to an individual’s identity; and informational copies which cannot be used to establish identity. Only individuals designated by law have access to authorized copies of a person's death certificate.
  • Dependency Investigation (18)
    PH-6500.1500-160

    Dependency Investigation

    PH-6500.1500-160

    Programs that investigate the backgrounds of children and families who have been reported for child abuse or neglect and make recommendations to the appropriate court regarding the need for protection by the court and options for placement if required.
  • Disability Rights Groups (8)
    TD-1600.3100-180

    Disability Rights Groups

    TD-1600.3100-180

    Organizations that support the passage and enforcement of laws or other social measures that protect the rights of people who have physical, mental, developmental or learning disabilities and maximize their ability to enjoy the same opportunities, resources and privileges as the mainstream population.
  • Discrimination Assistance (3)
    FT-1800

    Discrimination Assistance

    FT-1800

    Programs that provide assistance for people who believe that they have been treated unfairly or denied normal privileges based on their age, gender, race or ethnic origin, nationality, religion, disability, sexual orientation or marital status.
  • Diversion Programs (1)
    FF-0500.1800

    Diversion Programs

    FF-0500.1800

    Community-based programs that provide and/or coordinate the delivery of individual, group and family counseling, training, employment assistance and other prescribed social services for individuals who have been arrested for a minor offense and directed to participate in an educational or treatment program in lieu of prosecution for the offense. In most cases, the courts suspend prosecution for a prescribed period and dismiss charges altogether against those who successfully complete the program. Included are jail diversion programs which ensure that mentally ill offenders receive treatment and support services rather than spend time in jail.
  • Divorce Assistance (14)
    FT-3000.1700

    Divorce Assistance

    FT-3000.1700

    Programs that provide assistance for people who are initiating or responding to a suit for an annulment of their marriage, which establishes that a marital status never existed; a legal separation, which suspends the marriage so far as concerns the cohabitation of the two parties; or a divorce, which totally dissolves the marriage relationship. These programs may also discuss and represent the individual's interests regarding distribution of property assets and parenting issues regarding any children.
  • Divorce Counseling (2)
    RP-1400.8000-175

    Divorce Counseling

    RP-1400.8000-175

    Programs that provide emotional support, information and guidance in a variety of settings for individuals who are divorced or have decided to divorce or separate, and for their families.
  • Divorce Mediation (8)
    FT-3000.1700-200

    Divorce Mediation

    FT-3000.1700-200

    Programs that provide a neutral third person who facilitates discussion between people involved in a divorce action enabling them to make their own settlement decision.
  • Domestic/Family Violence Legal Services (13)
    FT-3000.1750

    Domestic/Family Violence Legal Services

    FT-3000.1750

    Programs that provide information and guidance and/or representation in court proceedings for individuals who have been abused in an intimate relationship and/or for people who are facing a summary conviction offence or criminal charge for perpetrating abuse. Included are domestic violence law clinics and other legal assistance programs that represent victims of domestic abuse at restraining order hearings or in other civil or criminal actions involving charges against an abuser. Most also represent the person's interests in complexities that arise as part of the legal process such as restitution, payment of debts or child support, custody and visitation and property control. Some programs may also represent victims of domestic abuse who have been charged with a crime and/or handle cases involving accusations of child abuse filed by one parent against the other, abuse of an elderly person by an adult child or abuse of an adult child by a parent.
  • Driver Licenses (10)
    DF-7000.1850

    Driver Licenses

    DF-7000.1850

    Programs that issue permits which provide written authorization for an individual to operate a motor vehicle on public roads and highways following successful completion of a written and/or driving examination and a vision test. These programs also renew driver licenses that are about to expire, replace driver licenses that are lost or stolen, and process name and address changes.
  • Drug Courts (4)
    FC-8200.8100-170

    Drug Courts

    FC-8200.8100-170

    Special courts that have been given the responsibility to handle cases involving drug-addicted offenders through an extensive supervision and treatment program. Drug court participants undergo long-term treatment and counseling sanctions, incentives and frequent court appearances. Successful completion of the program results in dismissal of charges, reduced or set aside sentences, lesser penalties, or a combination of these.
  • Elder Law (12)
    FT-2450

    Elder Law

    FT-2450

    Programs that provide information and guidance for individuals who need assistance in the area of law which relates to the rights and needs of older adults, especially in the areas of age discrimination, consumer fraud, estate planning and management, living trusts, trust administration, probate, property law, retirement planning, pension benefits, Social Security benefits, Medicaid and Medicare, disability planning, long-term care alternatives, health care decisions, elder abuse, guardianships and conservatorships.
  • Elder/Dependent Adult Abuse Reporting (3)
    PH-6500.0500-180

    Elder/Dependent Adult Abuse Reporting

    PH-6500.0500-180

    Programs that accept reports of elder and dependent adult abuse or neglect. Services include assessment of the initial report and referral to Adult Protective Services for formal follow-up or other community service providers as appropriate.
  • Election Information (3)
    TQ-1800.1600

    Election Information

    TQ-1800.1600

    Programs that publish and/or distribute information regarding the position of rival candidates in an election, voter guides that may summarize the pros and cons of specific ballot measures, sample ballots, precinct boundaries, the location and hours of polling places, and other details regarding the content or the mechanics of the election.
  • Employment Discrimination Assistance (4)
    FT-1800.1850

    Employment Discrimination Assistance

    FT-1800.1850

    Programs that provide assistance for people who believe that they have been denied equal access to employment or that they have been treated unfairly as employees, i.e., that they were sexually harassed or denied equal pay for equal work, passed over for a promotion, denied training opportunities or fired on the basis of their age, gender, race or ethnic origin, nationality, religion, disability, sexual orientation or marital status. Also included are programs that provide assistance for job applicants who feel they have been denied employment because of a military service obligation or help restore job seniority and pension rights which have been withheld from military service personnel because of an absence from work due to a service obligation.
  • Energy Conservation (1)
    JD-1500.1800

    Energy Conservation

    JD-1500.1800

    Programs that conserve existing energy resources, ensure efficient use of available energy and develop new energy sources while protecting the quality of the environment.
  • Environmental Hazards Cleanup (1)
    JP-6500.1500

    Environmental Hazards Cleanup

    JP-6500.1500

    Programs that are responsible for eliminating pollutants, radiant or other energy or other substances from people's homes, yards or other environments once those materials have been identified as hazardous.
  • Environmental Hazards Evaluation (1)
    JP-6500.1800

    Environmental Hazards Evaluation

    JP-6500.1800

    Programs that conduct tests to ascertain whether there are harmful levels of pollutants, radiant or other energy or other hazardous materials in people's homes, yards or other environments; and/or supply test kits which can be used in the home for this purpose.
  • Eviction Prevention Legal Assistance (12)
    FT-4500.1800

    Eviction Prevention Legal Assistance

    FT-4500.1800

    Programs that provide assistance for people are being evicted, either wrongfully or with reason, from their apartments or other rental property. Also included are programs that attempt to prevent eviction and possible homelessness by providing mediation services to negotiate a compromise between an individual and the landlord.
  • Ex-Offender Halfway Houses (2)
    FF-1850

    Ex-Offender Halfway Houses

    FF-1850

    Community-based programs that provide congregate living arrangements and a wide variety of counseling and supportive services for ex-offenders who recently have been released from a correctional facility but who require a gradual transition from that highly structured and supervised way of a life to a relatively free and normal existence in the community.
  • Ex-Offender Reentry Programs (6)
    FF-1900

    Ex-Offender Reentry Programs

    FF-1900

    Programs that help people who have been released from a correctional facility make a successful transition to community life. Services generally include an assessment of the individual's needs, discussion of options and short-term case management involving coordination of needed services which may include housing location assistance, job training, job placement and retention services, legal assistance, literacy skills development, GED courses, parenting classes, life skills training, access to food and shelter resources, and other sources of support.
  • Family Law (9)
    FT-3000

    Family Law

    FT-3000

    Programs that provide assistance for people who are involved in disputes or legal actions which affect their domestic relationships.
  • Family Law Courts (12)
    FC-8200.8100-200

    Family Law Courts

    FC-8200.8100-200

    State courts that handle domestic relations cases including dissolution of marriages, nullification of marriages, legal separations, paternity actions, child custody, child support, visitation arrangements, spousal support and restraining orders; and which offer marriage and family counseling to help couples to reconcile or, if reconciliation is impossible, to reach an amicable agreement on a custody plan.
  • Federal Tax Collection Agencies (1)
    DT-8500.3300

    Federal Tax Collection Agencies

    DT-8500.3300

    The federal program that is responsible for assuring that taxpayers, organizations of taxpayers and organizations which serve taxpayers receive the most current information regarding their tax obligations and rights as established by the federal tax system. Duties include informing the public of its rights and responsibilities; communicating requirements of the law to the public; assisting taxpayers in complying with the laws and regulations; and taking those enforcement actions necessary for fair, effective and impartial tax administration. Activities include ensuring satisfactory resolution of taxpayer complaints; providing taxpayer services and education; determining, assessing and collecting internal revenue taxes; determining pension plan qualifications and exempt organization status; and preparing rulings and regulations to supplement the provisions of the Internal Revenue Code.
  • Fire Control/Extinction (25)
    JR-1900.2000

    Fire Control/Extinction

    JR-1900.2000

    Programs that are responsible for fighting fires in urban or wilderness areas as well as high-rise fires, marine fires, fires involving petrochemicals or hazardous materials and those associated with air crashes.
  • Forensic Mental Health Evaluation (2)
    RP-5000.2000

    Forensic Mental Health Evaluation

    RP-5000.2000

    Programs that provide an assessment of the mental health status of individuals who are involved in criminal or civil law cases at the request of the court or an attorney who is attempting to evaluate the situation. Forensic evaluations are completed by mental health personnel (generally psychiatrists or psychologists) who have additional training in the law; and may address any of a wide range of issues such as an individual's fitness to stand trial (i.e., their ability to assist in their own defense), the competency of the accused at the time of a crime, waiver of Miranda rights, the validity of an insanity plea, the legitimacy of a stress-related illness claim arising from an individual's employment, the extent of brain damage that may have occurred in a head injury case, a child's ability to testify or a person's competency to manage his or her own affairs. Forensic evaluations may also be done in situations involving juvenile justice issues, child abuse, child custody disputes, termination of parental rights and other cases that are being heard in juvenile court or family law court.
  • Foster Home Licensing (2)
    DF-4500.2000-200

    Foster Home Licensing

    DF-4500.2000-200

    Programs that establish and enforce health, safety and program standards for foster homes, review applications for licenses, issue or deny licenses, inspect facilities for compliance with requirements and revoke licenses or bring disciplinary action for noncompliance.
  • Fraud Prevention (2)
    FN-1500.2050

    Fraud Prevention

    FN-1500.2050

    Programs that help older adults, people who live alone and other vulnerable individuals become aware of the scams and con games that are most frequently used to induce victims to part with their money or valuables. Common scams include fraudulent prize offers, "free" travel packages that have hidden costs or which never materialize, "get rich quick" investments that turn out to be worthless, tax debt/refund scams, phony charities with names that are similar to well-known organizations and schemes involving promises to recover an individual's money following their victimization by another scam.
  • General Crime Victim Assistance (9)
    FN-1900.2500

    General Crime Victim Assistance

    FN-1900.2500

    Programs that provide a variety of supportive services for victims of crimes and their families which may include general emotional support, crisis counseling, information about police investigative procedures, liaison to police personnel, assistance in completing and filing applications for reimbursement of crime-related expenses or losses, information about the mechanics of court proceedings, advice concerning court appearances, court accompaniment services, assistance in preparing victim impact statements and referrals for other needed services such as medical treatment, shelter away from home, transportation, child care, financial assistance and protective services.
  • General Legal Aid (19)
    FT-3200

    General Legal Aid

    FT-3200

    Programs that provide legal counseling and/or representation for low-income individuals who need assistance in routine legal matters, usually in the area of bankruptcy, housing, public benefits, family law, elder law or immigration/naturalization.
  • Government Complaints/Government Ombudsman Offices (3)
    DD-1500.4150

    Government Complaints/Government Ombudsman Offices

    DD-1500.4150

    Programs such as governmental, departmental or nonprofit ombudsman offices that provide assistance for people who want to register complaints about or have other issues which relate to the activities, actions or lack of action by public officials or civil service employees in local, county, state or federal government offices or the agencies they regulate and/or fund. Also included are programs that handle complaints about the availability and quality of services provided by any of these levels of government. The program provides an objective, neutral and independent review of complaints; offers reasonable remedies when complaints are substantiated; and uses information from the complaints and the investigations they trigger to identify and resolve problems within the agency or department and improve services.
  • Government Consumer Protection Agencies (18)
    DD-2100.2500

    Government Consumer Protection Agencies

    DD-2100.2500

    Consumer protection offices that are part of federal, state, county or city governments which receive, investigate and resolve through direct action or referral to law enforcement or regulatory agencies, consumer complaints that are a result of transactions in the marketplace. Most government consumer affairs offices also publish and disseminate a large selection of consumer education materials, initiate studies to improve standards of conduct for businesses and consumers, and analyze and recommend changes in consumer protection legislation.
  • Guardians ad Litem (1)
    FJ-2600

    Guardians ad Litem

    FJ-2600

    Individuals appointed by the court to represent, in a particular lawsuit, the interests of minors, people judged to be incompetent or people unborn or unascertained who may have a future interest in the property involved in the litigation. These special guardians may also serve as advocates for dependent children pending settlement of their cases in dependency court; and are usually attorneys but may also be court appointed special advocates (CASA volunteers).
  • Guardians ad Litem Volunteer Opportunities (1)
    PX-1850.2500

    Guardians ad Litem Volunteer Opportunities

    PX-1850.2500

    Organizations that are actively seeking individuals with the requisite skills and experience who are willing to work as court appointed special advocates on a voluntary basis without remuneration representing the interests of abused, neglected or abandoned children involved in family court proceedings.
  • Guardianship Assistance (2)
    FT-6900.2500

    Guardianship Assistance

    FT-6900.2500

    Programs that provide assistance for people who are in favor of or want to oppose the appointment of a guardian to care for and/or manage the affairs of a child or adolescent during minority (generally younger than age 18). In some states, particularly those with no arrangements for conservatorships, whose conservatorships are voluntary covering property and powers designated by the conservatee or whose conservatorships address only the individual's estate, guardianships may also apply to adults who have been found by the courts to be incapable of managing their own affairs.
  • Hate Crimes Reporting (4)
    FN-1700.3000

    Hate Crimes Reporting

    FN-1700.3000

    Programs that provide a hotline or other mechanisms that the public can use to anonymously report information about the activities of individuals who have planned or committed acts of violence or intimidation against people on the basis of their race or ethnic origin, nationality, religion, sexual orientation or other stereotypic characteristic.
  • Hazardous Waste Control (6)
    JD-6500.1800-300

    Hazardous Waste Control

    JD-6500.1800-300

    Programs that establish regulations for the disposal of hazardous waste, issue hazardous waste permits which authorize the treatment of hazardous materials and discharge into the public sewer system; issue licenses for for class one landfills, i.e., those that handle all waste except for nuclear materials; establish standards for abandoned hazardous waste; accept and investigate reports of accidental spills or illegal dumping into the streets, gutters, catch basins, sewers or storm drains; and, where warranted, revoke licenses or permits that have been issued and/or initiate litigation against individuals and organizations who have failed to comply with hazardous waste control regulations.
  • Health Insurance Claims Assistance for Beneficiaries (11)
    FT-3900.3300-300

    Health Insurance Claims Assistance for Beneficiaries

    FT-3900.3300-300

    Programs that provide a variety of supportive services for individuals who need assistance in completing, filing and/or appealing decisions with regard to their medical insurance claims.
  • Health Law (3)
    FT-3250

    Health Law

    FT-3250

    Programs that provide assistance for clinics, hospitals, provider networks, health maintenance organizations, home health care organizations, imaging centers, nursing homes, pharmacies and other organizations in the health care industry in need of legal advice or representation regarding legislative and regulatory issues, patient/resident issues, staff issues, certificates of need, third party payments, alternative health care delivery systems, licensing and accreditation, institutional review, policy and procedure development and implementation, physician contracts and compensation, Medicare and Medicaid compliance, and medical ethics issues such as withholding or withdrawing medical treatment. Health lawyers also provide legal services for organizations confronted with a health-related investigation or litigation; and offer support regarding a wide variety of operational issues such as medical records systems, HIPAA compliance, patient confidentiality, informed consent, physician recruitment, quality of care and utilization management. Some lawyers in this area may also represent patients.
  • Health Maintenance Organization Complaints (2)
    DD-1500.4280-280

    Health Maintenance Organization Complaints

    DD-1500.4280-280

    Programs that accept and, where possible, attempt to resolve complaints regarding the licensing, quality of care, treatment of patients, unprofessional conduct of personnel or other inappropriate business practices of health maintenance organizations.
  • Highway Safety Standards (1)
    DF-8000.9000-300

    Highway Safety Standards

    DF-8000.9000-300

    Programs that are responsible for developing mandatory minimum safety standards for domestic and foreign motor vehicles sold within the country, establishing minimum fuel use limits for vehicles, supervising administration of maximum speed limits, developing safety and wear standards for tires, enforcing laws prohibiting tampering with vehicle odometers and other tasks associated with ensuring public safety on highways.
  • Housing Complaints (17)
    DD-1500.4650

    Housing Complaints

    DD-1500.4650

    Programs that accept and, where possible, attempt to resolve complaints regarding improper, unethical or illegal practices in the provision of housing.
  • Human Rights Groups (1)
    TD-1600.3100

    Human Rights Groups

    TD-1600.3100

    Organizations that work for legislation and other social measures that will more effectively protect the rights of the community as a whole or those of specific groups within the community.
  • Identification Cards (12)
    DF-7000.3300

    Identification Cards

    DF-7000.3300

    Programs that issue documentation that is designed to prove the identity of the person carrying it.
  • Immigrant Visa Application Filing Assistance (16)
    FT-3600.3300

    Immigrant Visa Application Filing Assistance

    FT-3600.3300

    Programs that assist in filing petitions by aliens who are seeking admission to the United States with the intention of residing in the U.S. on a permanent basis. In most cases, a relative or prospective employer files the immigrant visa application on behalf of the individual. Certain applicants such as investors, workers with extraordinary ability and certain special immigrants may petition on their own behalf. Petitioners apply for a specific immigrant classification for the beneficiary, e.g., priority worker, spouse of a lawful permanent resident and, when the petition has been approved, wait until a visa number becomes available.
  • Immigration/Naturalization Legal Services (1)
    FT-3600

    Immigration/Naturalization Legal Services

    FT-3600

    Programs that provide legal assistance for immigrants, nonimmigrant visa applicants, asylum seekers and lawful permanent residents who are seeking naturalization. Services are generally provided by nonprofit immigration law offices and may involve information and consultation about benefits under immigration law including procedures for obtaining student, visitor and employment-based visas; family immigration; asylee status; lawful permanent residence status; or citizenship.
  • Inmate Mental Health Services (1)
    FF-3300.3350

    Inmate Mental Health Services

    FF-3300.3350

    Programs that provide psychotherapy and counseling services including therapy and psychosocial rehabilitation groups for correctional facility inmates who have mental disorders and emotional problems. Psychiatric medication, when required, is dispensed by nursing staff. Some correctional facilities have satellite psychiatric units with inpatient beds and/or special units for the long term care of severely and persistently mentally ill inmates.
  • Inmate Pre-Release Programs (1)
    FF-3300.3360

    Inmate Pre-Release Programs

    FF-3300.3360

    Programs, generally provided by correctional facility rehabilitation staff, that interview inmates who are about to be released from the correctional facility, make an assessment of the services they will need to facilitate their return to the community and provide them with referrals to outside agencies that offer job placement assistance, transportation, lodging, emergency aid or other resources. Pre-release counseling services may also be provided by outside agencies that have a contractual arrangement with the correctional system.
  • Juvenile Courts (7)
    FC-8200.3500

    Juvenile Courts

    FC-8200.3500

    State courts that have jurisdiction over minors who have been charged with an offense that would be considered criminal if committed by an adult, who have committed status offenses or traffic violations, or who have been neglected or physically or sexually abused.
  • Juvenile Delinquency Diversion Counseling (20)
    RP-1400.8000-370

    Juvenile Delinquency Diversion Counseling

    RP-1400.8000-370

    Programs that provide individual, conjoint, family and group counseling for people younger than age 18 who are at risk for or have committed delinquent acts and who are directed to participate in counseling for a period of time as an alternative to arrest, a hearing in a juvenile delinquency or youth court, or, in some cases, another court-ordered disposition. These programs are often provided by agencies which also offer other types of counseling for young people and their families, which coordinate with the referring agency concerning the client's responsible use of services and which involve the client's family in the counseling process as needed.
  • Juvenile Delinquency Prevention (14)
    FN-1500.3600

    Juvenile Delinquency Prevention

    FN-1500.3600

    Programs that offer a variety of activities for youth who are at risk for behavior which is likely to involve them in the juvenile justice system with the objective of assisting them to improve self-esteem, to become aware of alternative ways of dealing with feelings and leisure time, and to take responsibility for the consequences of their actions. Included may be counseling, rap and discussion groups, tutoring, companionship programs, alternative peer group experiences and supervised recreational activities.
  • Juvenile Detention Facilities (5)
    FF-1500.3500

    Juvenile Detention Facilities

    FF-1500.3500

    Facilities that provide for the detention of minors who have been arrested for violating a federal or state law or a municipal or local ordinance pending a court hearing or release; and/or which provide for the confinement, treatment, employment, training and discipline of juveniles convicted of a criminal offense and sentenced by Youth or Juvenile Court to serve a period of time in a juvenile detention facility which may include juvenile hall, juvenile probation camp or a state reformatory site.
  • Juvenile Diversion (14)
    FF-0500.1800-350

    Juvenile Diversion

    FF-0500.1800-350

    Community-based programs that provide comprehensive social services for individuals younger than age 18 who have committed a minor offense and are directed to participate in a diversion program as an alternative to arrest, prosecution or, in some cases, sentencing for the offense. Most juvenile diversion programs do an assessment of the individual's needs and provide and/or coordinate the delivery of the necessary services which may include individual, group or family counseling, substance abuse counseling, supervised recreational activities, vocational guidance, tutorial services and supplemental referrals for other needs.
  • Juvenile Probation (10)
    FF-0500.6550-350

    Juvenile Probation

    FF-0500.6550-350

    Programs that provide formal supervision and support for young men and women who have been convicted of an offense and released into the community under the supervision of a probation officer, usually in lieu of incarceration. The individual must agree to standards of conduct specified by the court for a set amount of time, usually for one year. Violations of the agreement subject the individual to revocation of his or her liberty.
  • Labor and Employment Law (7)
    FT-4150

    Labor and Employment Law

    FT-4150

    Programs that provide legal assistance for people who want to establish employment practices that will minimize or eliminate problems in the employment area or who need to resolve a dispute or initiate or respond to litigation which relates to their role as employers or employees, their rights and obligations. Labor and employment law deals with a variety of issues including ADA compliance, wage and hour compliance, workplace health and safety, interview and hiring practices, employee contracts, employee benefits, maternity/paternity leaves, medical leaves, supervision and discipline, workplace privacy, workplace violence, sexual harassment and wrongful termination.
  • Land Conservation (1)
    JD-1500.4500

    Land Conservation

    JD-1500.4500

    Programs that preserve and protect endangered land resources from indiscriminate development, destruction or decay and which manage the utilization of renewable and nonrenewable resources to ensure ongoing availability. Included are conservation of forests, rangeland vegetation, deserts, wild and scenic rivers and other wilderness areas and open land spaces; and reestablishment of areas that have been devastated by strip mining or other destructive activities.
  • Landlord/Tenant Assistance (11)
    FT-4500

    Landlord/Tenant Assistance

    FT-4500

    Programs that provide assistance, information and support for tenants and/or landlords who are involved in rental housing disputes; or which administer state laws or local ordinances which govern rent control and other aspects of tenant/landlord relations.
  • Landlord/Tenant Dispute Resolution (12)
    FT-4500.4600

    Landlord/Tenant Dispute Resolution

    FT-4500.4600

    Programs that help tenants and landlords resolve disputes regarding security and other rental deposits, unsanitary conditions, failure to make repairs, privacy, notice requirements, excessive rent increases, nonpayment of rent, neglect or damage to property, overcrowding or other grievances.
  • Law Enforcement Education/Information (2)
    FR-4500

    Law Enforcement Education/Information

    FR-4500

    Programs whose primary purpose is to provide information to the public about police procedures and specific crime prevention and other law enforcement programs that are designed to protect the community.
  • Lawyer Referral Services (10)
    FT-4800

    Lawyer Referral Services

    FT-4800

    Programs that maintain lists of private attorneys and link people who need legal assistance with lawyers who specialize in the required area of law.
  • Lead Paint Abatement (1)
    JP-6500.1500-450

    Lead Paint Abatement

    JP-6500.1500-450

    Programs that reduce the hazards associated with lead paint in schools, apartment buildings, homes and other structures by removing the paint and vacuuming up the remnants, by completely repainting the affected surfaces or by spot painting.
  • Legal Associations (2)
    TN-4600

    Legal Associations

    TN-4600

    Organizations whose members are lawyers, judges or other legal professionals who have affiliated for the purpose of promoting mutual interests, participating in legal seminars and conferences, networking with their peers, subscribing to legal journals and other publications, and taking advantage of other opportunities for professional development. Many legal associations offer assistance to members who have management or financial problems that relate to their practices, set standards which relate to the qualifications and performance of members, accept and investigate complaints from the public regarding the practices of members and maintain lawyer referral services through which citizens who require legal assistance are referred to member attorneys.
  • Legal Counseling (59)
    FP-4000

    Legal Counseling

    FP-4000

    Programs that are staffed by lawyers who offer information and guidance regarding legal matters, proposed lines of conduct, claims or contentions including opinions on the party's rights, responsibilities and liabilities; and who offer suggestions for an appropriate course of action, but do not represent clients in court.
  • Legal Information Lines (5)
    TJ-3200.4500

    Legal Information Lines

    TJ-3200.4500

    Programs that provide telephone information about specific legal problems and procedures. Included are programs like Tel-Law and Ask Immigration with tapes on specific topics that people can select and access through a central number which are then played over the telephone, those that are staffed by live operators who have legal expertise and who answer questions directly, and those that provide legal information via an Internet website.
  • Legal Issues Education/Information (20)
    FR-4700

    Legal Issues Education/Information

    FR-4700

    Legal aid programs, bar associations and other organizations that provide basic information about family law, landlord/tenant law, immigration law, consumer law, elder law, patient rights, the rights of persons with disabilities, the criminal justice system, the civil court system and other legal topics via workshops, classes, speaking engagements, printed materials, websites and other similar educational avenues.
  • Legal Representation (49)
    FP-4500

    Legal Representation

    FP-4500

    Programs that are staffed by lawyers who appear on behalf of their clients in criminal, civil and/or administrative actions and proceedings in addition to offering legal advice and guidance.
  • LPS Conservatorship Assistance (1)
    FT-6900.1500-450

    LPS Conservatorship Assistance

    FT-6900.1500-450

    Programs that provide assistance for people who are in favor or want to oppose the appointment of a conservator to manage the personal and financial affairs of an adult who is gravely disabled due to a mental disorder. People are considered gravely disabled when they are unable to provide for their basic needs (food, clothing, and shelter) without assistance because of a mental disorder and are unable or unwilling to accept psychiatric treatment voluntarily. The purpose of this type of conservatorship is to provide for the mental health care of the individual, which may include involuntary detention in a mental health treatment facility, and to protect and administer the individual's estate.
  • Mediation (3)
    FP-0700.5000

    Mediation

    FP-0700.5000

    Programs that provide a neutral third person who is acceptable to all parties to a dispute who facilitates discussion between the parties and aids them in making their own settlement decisions.
  • Medicaid Appeals/Complaints (9)
    NL-5000.5000-500

    Medicaid Appeals/Complaints

    NL-5000.5000-500

    Programs that are responsible for hearing appeals and resolving complaints that have been filed by people who have applied for or who are receiving services through Medicaid and believe that they have been discriminated against, that their rights have been violated or that the state or county has failed to take appropriate action with respect to their application or benefits.
  • Medicaid Fraud Reporting (3)
    FN-1700.9500-500

    Medicaid Fraud Reporting

    FN-1700.9500-500

    Programs that provide a hotline or other mechanisms that Medicaid recipients and the public at large can use to report recipients or health care providers that make false statements or representations which result in an unauthorized payment by the Medicaid program to themselves or another. Examples of fraud include incorrect reporting of diagnoses or procedures to maximize payments; billing for services, medical supplies or equipment not furnished; misrepresentation of the dates and descriptions of services furnished, the identity of the recipient or the individual furnishing services; and billing for noncovered or nonchargeable services as covered items.
  • Medicare Fraud Reporting (2)
    FN-1700.3350-550

    Medicare Fraud Reporting

    FN-1700.3350-550

    Programs that provide a hotline or other mechanisms that persons with Medicare and the public at large can use to report health care providers or beneficiaries who make false statements or representations which result in an unauthorized payment by the Medicare program to themselves or another. Also included are organizations that accept and investigate reports about fraudulent entities that misrepresent themselves as approved Medicare Part D Prescription Drug Plans; approved plans that use aggressive marketing tactics, discriminate against a beneficiary (e.g., prevent them from signing up for a plan based on their age, health status, race or income), entice beneficiaries to enroll in a more costly plan than they require, or erroneously charge beneficiaries for medication provided under the plan they have selected; or pharmacies that provide a different drug than the one prescribed by the physician. Examples of Medicare fraud include incorrect reporting of diagnoses or procedures to maximize payments; billing for services, medical supplies, equipment or medications not provided; misrepresentation of the dates and descriptions of services or medications provided, the identity of the recipient or the individual furnishing services; and billing for noncovered or nonchargeable services as covered items. Also included are programs that provide consumer education, counseling and assistance with the objective of helping people identify instances of fraud.
  • Mental Health Facility Complaints (1)
    DD-1500.5830

    Mental Health Facility Complaints

    DD-1500.5830

    Programs that accept and, where possible, attempt to resolve complaints regarding the licensing, incompetence of staff, cleanliness and safety of facilities, treatment of patients, quality of care, excessive fees, unethical, improper or unprofessional conduct of personnel or other inappropriate business practices of inpatient or residential facilities for people who have substantive mental, emotional or social problems.
  • Military Law (4)
    FT-5700

    Military Law

    FT-5700

    Programs that provide assistance for people who are employed by any of the branches of the armed forces and have committed an offense which brings them under the jurisdiction of the military courts.
  • Mobile Home Complaints (2)
    DD-1500.5900

    Mobile Home Complaints

    DD-1500.5900

    Programs that accept and, where possible, attempt to resolve complaints regarding the companies that manufacture, sell, service or repair mobile homes.
  • Mold Abatement (2)
    JP-6500.1500-550

    Mold Abatement

    JP-6500.1500-550

    Programs that provide for the safe removal of mold spores and mold or mildew that is growing on surfaces in homes, business establishments, public buildings and other structures.
  • Municipal Police (38)
    FL-6500

    Municipal Police

    FL-6500

    The local agency that is responsible for enforcing all laws and ordinances; preventing crime; investigating criminal activity; apprehending, arresting and detaining suspects; presenting evidence; regulating traffic; investigating traffic accidents and engaging in other activities that protect lives and property and preserve peace in the community.
  • Non-Emergency Crime Reporting (2)
    FN-1700.6300

    Non-Emergency Crime Reporting

    FN-1700.6300

    Police departments and other law enforcement programs that provide a special number that people can use to report crimes that do not warrant an immediate response because the individual in question is not in immediate danger.
  • Nursing Facility Complaints (5)
    DD-1500.4280-600

    Nursing Facility Complaints

    DD-1500.4280-600

    Programs that accept and, where possible, attempt to resolve complaints regarding the licensing, incompetence of staff, cleanliness and safety of facilities, treatment of patients, quality of care, excessive fees, unethical, improper or unprofessional conduct of personnel or other inappropriate business practices of nursing facilities.
  • Occupational Health and Safety (1)
    JP-6300

    Occupational Health and Safety

    JP-6300

    Programs that promote safe and healthy work environments which protect working people from illness and injury and ensure that risks to health and safety in the workplace (such as exposure to toxic chemicals, biological agents, excessive noise or vibration levels, ionizing radiation, mechanical dangers, heat, cold, work-related stress or unsanitary conditions) are identified and assessed, then eliminated or controlled. Activities may include occupational illness and injury surveillance studies; enforcement of laws that establish health and safety standards for the workplace which seek to eliminate or minimize the incidence of employment-related personal illness, injury or death of workers; education programs and consultation services for employers and employees that address overall health and safety issues as well as specific workplace risk factors; and development and implementation of effective on-site workplace health and safety programs which include policies and procedures, instruction and supervision of workers, reporting and investigation of incidents, workplace inspections, and strong management support and worker participation.
  • Occupational/Professional Licensing and Certification (2)
    DF-4500.6300

    Occupational/Professional Licensing and Certification

    DF-4500.6300

    Programs that establish and enforce licensing and certification standards for the trades and professions that are subject to regulation, review applications for licenses, administer examinations to demonstrate competency, issue or deny licenses and/or revoke licenses and certificates or take disciplinary action for noncompliance with standards.
  • Parole (1)
    FF-0500.6500

    Parole

    FF-0500.6500

    Programs that provide for the formal supervision of people who have been conditionally released from jail, prison or other confinement after serving part of the term for which they were sentenced based on the judgment of a parole board that there is a reasonable probability that they will live and remain at liberty without violating the law. People who are on parole remain in the legal custody of the state and may be reincarcerated if they violate the terms of their parole order.
  • Patient Rights Assistance (9)
    FT-6200

    Patient Rights Assistance

    FT-6200

    Programs that provide information, education, advocacy and/or other forms of legal assistance which relate to the rights of people who are patients in a health or mental health care facility, who are residents of convalescent or other long or short-term care facilities including adult residential care homes, or who are incapacitated and are being cared for at home by family members. Services may also be available to significant others of these individuals.
  • Physician/Surgeon Complaints (1)
    DD-1500.7230-660

    Physician/Surgeon Complaints

    DD-1500.7230-660

    Programs that accept and, where possible, attempt to resolve complaints regarding the licensing, incompetence, negligence, violations of laws relating to the use and prescription of dangerous drugs and narcotics, quality of service, excessive fees, unprofessional conduct or other inappropriate business practices of physicians and surgeons.
  • Poison Control (1)
    LH-2700.6500

    Poison Control

    LH-2700.6500

    Programs that provide emergency information, usually on a 24-hour basis, for medical personnel or others who may need to take immediate corrective action to treat an individual who has been poisoned or to prevent such an occurrence.
  • Probate Assistance (1)
    FT-6900

    Probate Assistance

    FT-6900

    Programs that provide assistance for people who are involved in proceedings that deal with the establishment of decedents' wills, the settlement of decedents' estates or the appointment of a guardian or conservator for adults or children who are unable to manage their own affairs.
  • Probate Conservatorship Assistance (2)
    FT-6900.1500-650

    Probate Conservatorship Assistance

    FT-6900.1500-650

    Programs that provide assistance for people who are in favor or want to oppose the appointment of a conservator to manage the personal and/or financial affairs of an adult who is incapable of doing so due to poor health, senility or other disabling conditions. Individuals or organizations appointed as "conservators of the person" are responsible for the person's care, maintenance, custody and control and provide for the person's living arrangements, food, clothing, medical care and other basic needs. Those appointed as "conservators of the estate" are responsible for the prudent management of the money and property belonging to the individual.
  • Product Safety Alerts/Recalls (1)
    JR-8000.6200

    Product Safety Alerts/Recalls

    JR-8000.6200

    Programs that issue bulletins to update the public about appliances, clothing, electronics, electrical power devices, furniture, household products, lighting/lighter products, sports/exercise equipment, toys and other consumer products that are subject to voluntary or mandatory recall or about which safety concerns have been registered. Safe handing information may be provided in situations where a product reported to be a safety hazard may still be for sale or in consumers' homes.
  • Property Tax Agencies (11)
    DT-8500.4500-650

    Property Tax Agencies

    DT-8500.4500-650

    Programs that are responsible for establishing the value of taxable real property within a specified geographic area to determine the amount of property tax the owners will be required to pay each tax year, notifying taxpayers of their property tax obligations, collecting property tax payments, pursuing unpaid property taxes and responding to property taxpayer complaints. In some jurisdictions, the property tax assessments and collections are handled by different agencies. In others, both responsibilities are handled by the same office.
  • Property Tax Information (1)
    DT-8700.6500

    Property Tax Information

    DT-8700.6500

    Programs that provide information and guidance for people who need to understand the property tax laws as they relate to individuals in their situation. Most states have provisions for property tax relief, but they vary widely in form. Some jurisdictions levy the tax and provide a true refund of all or a portion of the paid tax; some exempt the property altogether; some defer the property tax until after the death of the owner and then recoup the tax from the proceeds of the sale of the property; some have a blanket exemption in which all property owners over the age of 65 are exempt from all property taxes regardless of income; and some allow a tax credit to be applied toward the income tax for qualified property owners. In the latter situation, individuals not paying income tax may receive a refund of the property tax credit amount or no refund at all, depending on the tax laws of the jurisdiction. Most states determine eligibility for property tax relief by looking at combinations of age, income, disability and veteran status.
  • Prostitution Prevention (1)
    FN-1500.6400

    Prostitution Prevention

    FN-1500.6400

    Programs that attempt to reduce the incidence of prostitution and other forms of sexual exploitation and enhance the ability of people to leave or avoid prostitution through a variety of educational interventions which may focus on children of various ages, parents, people who work with families, professionals who work with women and youth who are part of the commercial sex industry and/or survivors, law enforcement personnel, members of the judiciary, public officials, and/or the community at large. The programs may provide information about attitudes and myths related to prostitution and related issues, how young people and others are led into prostitution, profiles of pimps and recruiters, recruitment scenarios, risk behaviors and warning signs, the consequences and repercussions of prostitution, and available community resources.
  • Protection and Advocacy for Individuals With Disabilities (3)
    FT-1000.6600

    Protection and Advocacy for Individuals With Disabilities

    FT-1000.6600

    Programs that provide assistance for individuals with disabilities who are having difficulty understanding and/or obtaining the full benefits and services to which they are entitled by law. Included are federally mandated programs that are part of the formal protection and advocacy system which includes Protection and Advocacy for Persons with Developmental Disabilities (PADD), Protection and Advocacy for Individuals with Mental Illness (PAIMI), Protection and Advocacy for Individual Rights (PAIR) and the Client Assistance Program (CAP); and independent organizations that provide the same types of services. Protection and advocacy programs provide legal representation and other advocacy services, under federal and state laws, for all people with disabilities and endeavor to ensure full access to inclusive educational programs, financial entitlements, health care, accessible housing and productive employment opportunities. The programs maintain a presence in facilities that care for people with disabilities where they monitor, investigate and attempt to remedy adverse conditions. CAP agencies (many of which are housed within protection and advocacy offices) provide information and assistance for individuals seeking or receiving vocational rehabilitation services under the Rehabilitation Act, including assistance in pursuing administrative, legal and other appropriate remedies.
  • Public Defender (9)
    FJ-6700.6500

    Public Defender

    FJ-6700.6500

    The attorney employed by the county to provide legal representation for all people, including juveniles, who are financially unable to furnish counsel for proceedings in criminal, juvenile, mental health or civil cases triable in Superior, Municipal or Justice Courts. Also included are federal public defenders, attorneys who are appointed by the court to represent individuals charged with federal offenses who cannot afford to retain their own attorney.
  • Public Facility Health Inspection (2)
    JP-6500.6650

    Public Facility Health Inspection

    JP-6500.6650

    Programs that conduct regular health inspections of facilities that are open to the public and look for accumulations of dirt, dust, mold or trash; broken steps, uneven flooring or other obstructions to safe access; unsanitary kitchen facilities; defective heating, lighting or ventilation; lack of hot water in laundry and/or lavatory facilities and other unsafe or unsanitary conditions. The types of facilities that are subject to inspection vary from state to state, and may include public, private and parochial schools; homeless shelters; domestic violence shelters; hotels; motels; boarding homes; child care facilities; foster homes; adult and juvenile detention facilities; other transient housing facilities and institutions; theaters; arenas; and other places of public assembly.
  • Public Guardianship/Conservatorship Programs (2)
    PH-6500.0500-680

    Public Guardianship/Conservatorship Programs

    PH-6500.0500-680

    Programs operated by a county, city, state or other public entities that are responsible for investigating the need for a guardian or conservator for all people who have been referred as allegedly incompetent or gravely disabled by mental illness or incapacity and which, upon appointment as guardian or conservator, are responsible for the care and custody of the individuals and/or the management of their estates.
  • Residential Recycling Programs (7)
    TE-8920.6600-800

    Residential Recycling Programs

    TE-8920.6600-800

    Community-sponsored voluntary or mandatory programs that encourage people in residential settings to recycle reusable resources such as newspaper, glass, plastic and metals such as aluminum, tin and steel which are found in cans. The program may supply recycling containers to participating households and may collect the recyclable materials on a regular basis.
  • Sheriff (44)
    FL-8200

    Sheriff

    FL-8200

    The county agency that is responsible for enforcing all laws and regulations, preventing crime, investigating criminal activity, apprehending, arresting and detaining suspects, preventing and suppressing delinquency and engaging in other activities that protect lives and property and preserve peace in the community.
  • Small Business Development (12)
    TB-0900.8000-800

    Small Business Development

    TB-0900.8000-800

    Programs that provide technical assistance, venture capital, loans, loan guarantees or other forms of support for individuals or groups who want to establish or expand the operation of a small business enterprise or venture. Also included are organizations whose purpose is to protect the interests of small businesses and assure that they receive a fair share of government purchases, government contracts, subcontracts and sales of government property.
  • Small Claims Advisory Programs (5)
    FT-8100

    Small Claims Advisory Programs

    FT-8100

    Programs that provide information and guidance for people who will be representing themselves in small claims court and need to understand the court procedures and develop a plan for the presentation of their case. Small claims advisors help litigants with issues such as finding the right court, serving court documents, case preparation, paying and collecting judgments, and appeals.
  • Smoking Regulation (1)
    JD-6500.0500-830

    Smoking Regulation

    JD-6500.0500-830

    Programs that establish and enforce ordinances which mandate smoking and nonsmoking areas in public buildings, offices, restaurants and other places that people gather or which prohibit smoking altogether in these locations.
  • Social Security Fraud Reporting (1)
    FN-1700.7800

    Social Security Fraud Reporting

    FN-1700.7800

    Programs that provide a hotline or other mechanisms the public can use to anonymously report fraud, waste, and abuse within Social Security Administration (SSA) programs and operations. Examples of Social Security fraud include concealing material facts or events that affect eligibility for benefits, making false statements on a benefits claim form, misuse of benefits by a representative payee, buying or selling Social Security cards or SSA information, crimes involving SSA employees, scams involving impersonation of an SSA employee, fraud or misuse of grant or contracting funds or other types of illegal activities involving Social Security.
  • Social Security Numbers (12)
    DF-7000.8250

    Social Security Numbers

    DF-7000.8250

    Programs that provide Social Security cards for people who need to register for employment, report their taxes and track their Social Security benefits. Also included are programs that replace Social Security cards when they are lost or stolen.
  • State Attorneys General (3)
    FJ-6700.8000

    State Attorneys General

    FJ-6700.8000

    The chief law officer for the state who supervises the legal affairs of the state, provides legal counsel to the administrators of state government and to county legal officers, supervises the activities of law enforcement agencies, has supervisory authority over county district attorneys and serves as the chief legal counsel in all litigation involving the state. While varying from one jurisdiction to the next due to statutory and constitutional mandates, typical powers of the Attorneys General include the authority to issue formal opinions to state agencies; act as public advocates in areas such as child enforcement, consumer protections, antitrust and utility regulation; propose legislation; enforce federal and state environmental laws; represent the state and state agencies before the state and federal courts; handle criminal appeals and serious statewide criminal prosecutions; institute civil suits on behalf of the state; represent the public's interests in charitable trust and solicitations; and operate victim compensation programs.
  • Support Orders (4)
    DF-7000.8330

    Support Orders

    DF-7000.8330

    Programs that register, maintain and, where appropriate, provide certified copies of judgments, decrees or orders issued by the court for the support and maintenance of a child or spouse including a child who has attained the age of majority under the law of the issuing jurisdiction or that of the parent with whom the child is living. Support orders can incorporate the provision of monetary support, health care, payment of court costs and arrears, or reimbursement of court costs and legal fees, interest and penalties, and other forms of relief.
  • Tap Water Testing (2)
    JP-6500.1800-850

    Tap Water Testing

    JP-6500.1800-850

    Programs that conduct tests of the drinking water that is available to people in their homes or other buildings to detect the presence of hazardous chemicals or other pollutants, and to analyze water composition in terms of softness, odor, color and contaminants (including chemicals such as magnesium sulphate, sodium sulphate and sodium chloride) that, while harmless, affect taste. Tests may be conducted by the authority responsible for the water system or by independent companies. Also available are test kits which can be used in the home for this purpose.
  • Tenant Rights Information/Counseling (16)
    FT-4500.8550

    Tenant Rights Information/Counseling

    FT-4500.8550

    Programs that provide information and guidance for tenants who need to know their rights and responsibilities regarding leases and rental agreements, deposits, legal eviction procedures, measures to protect themselves from unlawful or retaliatory evictions, rent withholding rights, rent control requirements, privacy rights and other issues that may be of particular interest to tenants. Tenant rights counseling may also include assistance in completing forms, advice regarding a particular dispute and contact with the offending landlord to provide notification that she or he is not in compliance with landlord/tenant laws.
  • Traffic Courts (4)
    FC-8200.8100-900

    Traffic Courts

    FC-8200.8100-900

    State courts that hear cases which involve metropolitan area traffic violations.
  • Traffic Safety Education/Inspections (3)
    JR-8200.8500

    Traffic Safety Education/Inspections

    JR-8200.8500

    Programs that are designed to increase public awareness of the measures that people can take to ensure their own safety and that of others while driving or riding as passengers in motor vehicles, riding bicycles, roller skating, skateboarding, or walking as pedestrians in traffic; or which conduct inspections of motor vehicles, child passenger safety seats or other related equipment to assure driver and passenger safety.
  • Veteran Benefits Assistance (27)
    FT-1000.9000

    Veteran Benefits Assistance

    FT-1000.9000

    Programs that provide assistance for veterans who are having difficulty understanding and/or obtaining the full benefits and services to which they are entitled by law based on service to their country. The programs may help veterans understand the eligibility criteria for benefits, the benefits provided by the program, the payment process and the rights of beneficiaries; provide consultation and advice; help them complete benefits application forms; negotiate on their behalf with U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs staff; and/or represent them in administrative processes or judicial litigation. Included are veteran rights organizations that offer a range of advocacy services as well as legal aid programs that offer more formalized legal assistance.
  • Victim/Offender Mediation Programs (6)
    FN-1900.9000

    Victim/Offender Mediation Programs

    FN-1900.9000

    Programs that provide opportunities for crime victims to meet with offenders in a safe, structured setting, discuss the circumstances and impact of the crime and participate in the formulation of a restitution plan which may be monetary, consist of work for the victim, entail community service, or involve other forms of compensation for harm that was caused. With the assistance of a facilitator, victims have an opportunity to ask questions and describe how the crime has affected them and/or their families. The focus of victim/offender conferencing is on victim healing, offender accountability and restoration of losses.
  • Water Quality Assurance (6)
    JD-6500.9500

    Water Quality Assurance

    JD-6500.9500

    Programs that establish minimum standards for surface and ground water quality and develop and enforce regulations to prevent or reduce water pollution and assure a reliable supply of healthy drinking water and water that is suitable for other purposes. Water quality assurance programs issue permits specifying the types and amounts of pollutants that may be discharged without violating water quality standards; identify and monitor land uses and activities such as manufacturing or farming that are potential sources of pollution; test, record and report on the quality of water in lakes, rivers, streams, underground aquifers and water supply wells upon which public water systems rely; monitor water treatment and distribution systems; issue warnings and investigate hazards related to contamination; and, when warranted, initiate litigation against individuals and organizations who have failed to comply with water pollution control regulations. These programs may also provide support for the development and oversight of wastewater treatment facilities and certify operators of those facilities. Water quality is generally defined in terms of its designated use, e.g., for drinking, swimming, farming, fish production or industrial processes.
  • Welfare Fraud Reporting (2)
    FN-1700.9500

    Welfare Fraud Reporting

    FN-1700.9500

    Programs that provide a hotline or other mechanisms that the public can use to anonymously report suspected cases of fraud involving TANF, Food Stamps, General Relief or other public assistance programs.
  • Welfare Rights Assistance (11)
    FT-1000.9500

    Welfare Rights Assistance

    FT-1000.9500

    Programs that provide assistance for prospective or current public financial assistance recipients who are having difficulty understanding and/or obtaining the full benefits to which they are entitled by law under various income support entitlement programs. The programs may help people understand the eligibility criteria for benefits, how much they can work without affecting their benefits (for some programs), the benefits provided by the program, the payment process and the rights of beneficiaries; provide consultation and advice; help them complete benefits application forms; negotiate on their behalf with public assistance benefits staff; and/or represent them in administrative hearings or judicial litigation. Included are welfare rights organizations that offer a range of advocacy services as well as legal aid programs that offer more formalized legal assistance. Entitlement programs include (but are not limited to) General Relief (GR), Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF), Food Stamps/SNAP, Medicaid, Supplemental Security Income (SSI) and Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI).
  • Wildlife Rescue/Relocation (1)
    JD-1500.9600-960

    Wildlife Rescue/Relocation

    JD-1500.9600-960

    Programs that provide assistance for wild birds, animals and other creatures who are endangered by fires, oil spills, or water pollution or who are otherwise in distress; that trap wild animals who have wandered into yards and other urban areas and transport them back to their natural habitats; that rescue and rehabilitate whales, dolphins, manatees, seals and other marine creatures who are beached or swimming in unsafe waters; or which reestablish the viability of habitats which have become overcrowded by transporting a portion of the population to new areas.
  • Youth Courts (1)
    FC-9500

    Youth Courts

    FC-9500

    Courts which serve as an alternative to Juvenile Justice Courts for youth younger than age 16 who have committed minor delinquent and status offenses or exhibit other problem behaviors. Youth whose cases are heard in youth courts are judged, convicted or exonerated and sentenced by their peers. Variously known as teen, peer, and student courts, youth courts can be administered by and operated by a variety of agencies within a community including law enforcement agencies, juvenile probation departments, juvenile courts, private nonprofit agencies and schools.
 
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